VENTURE 17             - Private Education for the Medical Arts and Sciences

Below, you will find many resources and reference systems to aid you in your studies of Human Anatomy and Physiology. At the bottom of this page you will find our Library. It consists of six units. An image library with accompanying didactic discussions in slide presentation format; designed to parallel your college coursework in Anatomy and Physiology.

Our library remains dynamic, and is often changed to meet the requirements of different courses at different scopes of knowledge.                                     


Get Body Smart

The Conservatory Anatomy Library also partners with Get Body Smart. Just click to gain access. The Get Body Smart anatomy teaching tool is important in that it utilizes not only animation, but offers a detailed interactive cadaver dissection.

Dissection is the best technique for learning anatomy and system relationships.


The Blausen Human Atlas

BlausenThe largest 3-D Animated Anatomy Library in the world, the Blausen Atlas was welcomed in 2013.

Designed and produced by Bruce Blausen, a Master of Medical Illustration from Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, the atlas is an eloquently rendered work of scientific animation, also available as a mobile-ap.

Thank you, Mr. Blausen.

The Biodigital Human

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The Bio-digital Human is a free 3-D interactive anatomy teaching tool. Just click the image.

The Bio-digital Human requires newer computer platforms and software. You will need to make sure that your computer is compatible with this program.

Human Anatomy, although an extremely visual science, is a discipline initiated through rote memorization. Some students are visual in their studying techniques and some are auditory, and then there are others who must hear it, write it and see it together. All of these techniques work. Find the best one for you. Power Point presentations are available through our library. Visual presentations will be coming soon.
To aid our clients and online users, we offer an online textbook and learning module. This tool allows us to present Anatomy and Physiology as an online didactic resource and course, available at no cost to our students. The rubrics are designed as an assistant to the students we teach on campus, but this online course is also available to anyone wanting to increase their medical knowledge and competitive edge.

For you to be able to utilize the Anatomy Course materials at no cost, you must sign into We Teach College Students, and request the course. You will be assisted through our vetting bridge which interfaces with your current college to confirm student status. We will then add you to our roster and email your access codes within twenty-four hours. This is a self paced programmed course. The course utilizes a large and concise text on anatomy, with case studies, color illustrations of gross and micro-anatomy, color labeling exercises, and flashcards, in addition to a terminology coach. Questions can be addressed on our Academic Questions page.

Our affiliate links are well established, web-sturdy, and safe, in addition to offering vigorous and enterprising content. They can help you take your studies as far as you wish.


The Anatomy Library is a complete image based library with accompanying didactics. Constructed as six units, each unit screen can be paused, advanced, and reversed at your discretion. You may point and click any image to manipulate these features. 
The units appear in order from top to bottom with titles as follows:

I. Constituents of the Human Body.
II. Support and Movement.
III. Communication, Control, and Integration.
IV. Transportation and Defense.
V. Respiration, Nutrition, and Excretion.
VI. Reproduction and Development.

Unit I. Constituents of the Human Body:
Organization, Chemistry, Cellular Anatomy,Cellular Physiology, Cell Growth and Reproduction, and finally, Tissues.
The Anatomic PositionLevels of organization. Body CavitiesBody Regions
 Nine regions of the abdominopelvic cavity. Only the most superficial structures of the internal organs are shown here. Division of the abdomen into four quadrants.Dissectional PlanesTransverse section of the abdomen.
Homeostasis of blood glucose.Internal EnvironmentHomeostatic ControlLevels of control.
The Periodic ChartMajor ElementsThe AtomHydrogen
Energy LevelsThe Ionic BondThe Covalent BondWater
The Hydrogen BondMetabolic ReactionsChemical GroupsWater as a Solvent
The pH ScaleGlucoseSucroseFatty Acids
TriglycerideThe Biphospholipid cell membraneSteroidsProstaglandin
Amino AcidsProtein StructureDenatured ProteinDNA; Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Transfer RNAATPBlood Lipoproteins: Structure of a lipoproteinVisualizing Proteins
A Composite Human CellPlasma Membrane (Cell Membrane)The Endoplasmic ReticulumThe Ribosome
The Golgi ApparatusProtein ExportA MitochondrionThe Cell Nucleus
The CytoskeletonCell FibersThe CentrosomeMovement Patterns
Cellular Connections Examples of Cell Types. Nerve cells Examples of Cell Types. Muscle cellsExamples of Cell Types. Red blood cells
Examples of Cell Types. Gland cellsExamples of Cell Types. Immune cellsFunctional Anatomy of Cell Membranes.Functional Anatomy of Cell Membranes.
Functional Anatomy of Cell Membranes.Functional Anatomy of Cell Membranes.Functional Anatomy of Cell Membranes.Functional Anatomy of Cell Membranes.
Functional Anatomy of Cell Membranes.DiffusionDiffusion through a membraneSimple diffusion through a phospholipid bilayer
OsmosisEffects of Osmosis on CellsMembrane channelsMembrane Carrier
Sodium-potassium pump.Bulk TransportReceptor-mediated endocytosis.Enzyme Action
 Enzyme regulation of a metabolic pathway. GlycolysisCitric acid cycle. KREBSThe Electron Transport Chain.
Summary of Cellular Respiration.DialysisFiltrationPassive Transport Processes. Simple diffusion
Passive Transport Processes. OsmosisPassive Transport Processes. Channel-mediated passive transport (facilitated diffusion)Passive Transport Processes. Carrier-mediated passive transport (facilitated diffusion)Active Transport Processes. Pumping
Active Transport Processes. Phagocytosis (endocytosis)Active Transport Processes.Pinocytosis (endocytosis)Active Transport Processes. ExocytosisDNA
GenesTranscriptionProtein SynthesisThe Genetic Code
The Genetic Code. Life Cycle of the Cell. DNA ReplicationMeiosis.
The Major Events of MitosisClassification of epithelial tissues. Exocrine GlandsClassification of connective tissues.
Diagram of loose (areolar) connective tissue.Types of muscle tissue. Nervous tissue.  Healing of a minor wound.
Types of body membranes.Health Matters: Hay Fever and Asthma. Sports & Fitness: Tissues and Fitness. (From Linsley D: Wardlaw’s perspectives in nutrition, ed 2, St Louis, 1993, Mosby–Year Book.)Epithelial tissue
Connective tissueMuscle tissueNervous tissueMembranous Epithelial Tissues: Simple Epithelium.
Membranous Epithelial Tissues: Simple Epithelium. Membranous Epithelial Tissues: Simple Epithelium.Membranous Epithelial Tissues: Simple Epithelium.Membranous Epithelial Tissues: Simple Epithelium.
Membranous Epithelial Tissues: Simple Epithelium. Membranous Epithelial Tissues: Simple Epithelium. Membranous Epithelial Tissues: Simple Epithelium.Structural Classification of Multicellular Exocrine Glands.
Structural Classification of Multicellular Exocrine Glands.Structural Classification of Multicellular Exocrine Glands.Structural Classification of Multicellular Exocrine Glands.Structural Classification of Multicellular Exocrine Glands.
Structural Classification of Multicellular Exocrine Glands.Structural Classification of Multicellular Exocrine Glands.Structural Classification of Multicellular Exocrine Glands.Connective Tissues. Fibrous Tissue. Loose (areolar)
Connective Tissues. Fibrous Tissue.Connective Tissues. Fibrous Tissue.Connective Tissues. Dense Fibrous Tissue.Connective Tissues. Dense Fibrous Tissue.
Connective Tissues. Dense Fibrous Tissue.Connective Tissues. Bone Tissue.Connective Tissues. Bone Tissue.Connective Tissues. Cartilage Tissue.
Connective Tissues. Cartilage Tissue.Connective Tissues. Cartilage Tissue.Connective Tissues. Cartilage Tissue.Muscle and Nervous Tissues. Nervous Tissue.
Muscle and Nervous Tissues. Nervous Tissue.Muscle and Nervous Tissues. Nervous Tissue.Muscle and Nervous Tissues. Nervous Tissue.

Unit II. Support and Movement: The integument, Skeletal Tissues, The Axial Skeleton, The Appendicular Skeleton, Joint Systems, and The Muscular System.

The SkinSkin StructureThin SkinThe EpidermisArrector Pili Touch
Lines of StressMelanin Skin ColorTanningAge SpotsCyanosis
Color changes in a bruise.Vitamin D production.The skin as a thermoregulatory organ. Role of skin in homeostasis of body temperature.Hair FollicleGray Hair
Male pattern baldness.Structure of nails.Pigmented nails.Onycholysis.Skin glands.Aged skin.
Tinea infectionDecubitus ulcer. Psoriasis.Skin cancers.Body temperature."Rule of nines."
Classification of burns.Vitiligo.BlistersSubcutaneous and intradermal injections.JaundiceAcne
 Structure of the Skin The skeleton.Types of bones.The Long BoneThe Flat BoneCompact and Cancellous Bone
Compact and cancellous bone in a flat bone.Orientation of trabeculae. Osteoblasts and OsteoclastsOsteocyteCalcium RegulationBone development.
Endochondral bone formation.Fetal ossification centers. Endochondral ossification of the hand and wrist.Epiphyseal plate structure.Growth of epiphyseal plate.Epiphyseal fracture.
Bone remodeling.Primary osteon formation.Bone fracture healing.Types of cartilage.Osteoporosis.Rickets.
 Skeleton. A Anterior view.Skeleton. B, Posterior view. C, Lateral view.Anterior view of the skull. (Courtesy Vidic B, Suarez FR: Photographic atlas of the human body, St Louis, 1984, Mosby.)Skull viewed from the right side. Floor of the cranial cavity viewed from above.Skull viewed from below.
Left half of the skull viewed from within.Bones of the left orbit and signs of fracture.Bones of the skull.Bones of the skull.  Bones of the skull.Bones of the skull.
Bones of the skull. Bones of the skull. Bones of the skull. Bones of the skull.Bones of the skull. The paranasal sinuses. A, Lateral view. B, Frontal view.
 Bones of the nasal cavity.Skull at birth.Hyoid boneThe vertebral column.Vertebrae. Vertebrae.
Vertebrae.Vertebrae.Thoracic cageArticulation of a rib and vertebra.Right scapula.Bones of the arm (right arm, anterior view).
Bones of the arm (right arm, posterior view)Bones of the hand and wrist.The female pelvis.Left coxal (hip) bone.Bones of the thigh and leg.The foot.
Arches of the foot.Comparison of the bony pelvis of the male and female skeletons.Bone fractures.Mastoiditis.Abnormal spine curvatures.Palpable bony landmarks.
Fibrous jointsCartilaginous jointsStructure of synovial joints.Types of synovial joints.The shoulder joint.The elbow joint.
Joints of the wrist. Joints of the hand and fingers. The hip joint.The right knee joint.Knee Joint.Ankle joint.
Vertebrae.Vertebrae and their ligaments. The Goniometer.Range of motion.Movements of the jaw.Range of motion in the spine
Movements and ROM of the shoulder.ROM of elbow.ROM of hand and wrist.Movements of the fingers and thumb.Movements and ROM of the hip.Movements and ROM of the knee.
Movements and ROM of the foot and ankle.Olecranon bursitis.Types of arthritis. Arthroscopy. Sports and Fitness. Knee injury. Sports and Fitness. Torn ligaments.
Sports and Fitness. Knee arthrogram.Sports and Fitness. Joint replacement. Classification of Synovial JointsStructure of a muscle organ.Muscle shape and fiber arrangement.Attachments of a skeletal muscle.
Muscle actions.Lever classes.General overview of the body's musculature. General overview of the body's musculature. C, Lateral view.Muscles of facial expression and mastication. Lateral view.Muscles of facial expression and mastication. Anterior view.
Muscles of mastication.Muscles that move the head. Posterior view of muscles of the neck and the back.Muscles of the thorax.Muscles of the trunk and abdominal wall.Dissection photo of the abdominal wall. Muscles of the back.
Muscles of the back. Muscles of the pelvic floor. A, Male, inferior view. B, Female, inferior view.Muscles acting on the shoulder girdle.Muscles that move the upper part of the arm. A, Anterior view. B, PosteriorRotator cuff muscles. Cross sections (proximal to distal) through the upper extremity.
Muscles acting on the forearm.Muscles acting on the forearm.Muscles of the forearm.Muscles of the anterior aspect of the right forearm.Intrinsic muscles of the hand—anterior (palmar) view.Iliopsoas muscle (iliacus, psoas major, and psoas minor muscles). O, Origin; I, insertion.
Cross sections (proximal to distal) through the lower extremity.Muscles of the anterior aspect of the thigh.Muscles that adduct the thigh. O, Origin; I, insertion.Gluteal muscles. A, Gluteus maximus. B, Gluteus minimus. C, Gluteus medius. O, Origin; I, insertion.QuadricepsHamstrings
Superficial muscles of the leg. A, Anterior view. B, Posterior view. C, Lateral view.Intrinsic muscles of the foot. Inferior (plantar) view.Sports and Fitness. The rotator cuff stabilizes the shoulder during athletic activities.The carpal tunnel.Health Matters. Intramuscular injections.Structure of skeletal muscle.
Unique features of the skeletal muscle cell. Storage and release of calcium ions. Skeletal muscle striations.Structure of myofilaments.Cross section of myofibrils.Neuromuscular junction (NMJ).
Effects of excitation on a muscle fiber.The molecular basis of muscle contraction. Role of calcium in muscle contraction.Cross bridges.Sliding-filament model.Simplified contracting sarcomere.
Energy sources for muscle contraction. Blood supply of muscle fibers. Aerobic and anaerobic respiration during muscular activity.The role of skeletal muscle tissues in maintaining a constant body temperature.Motor unit. Myography.
The twitch contraction. MyogramsRole of calcium in twitch and tetanus.StrengthThe length- tension relationship. The stretch reflex.
Factors that influence the strength of muscle contraction.Isotonic and isometric contraction.Cardiac muscle fiber. Cardiac and skeletal muscle contractions compared.Smooth muscle fiber. Types of smooth muscle.
Muscle strain.A More Detailed Look at the Sarcomere.Sports and Fitness. A, Types of muscle fibers. Three styles of twitch contractionSports and Fitness. C, Proportions of fiber types in muscle tissue.Effects of Exercise on Skeletal Muscles.
Effects of Exercise on Skeletal Muscles.

Unit III. Communication, Control, and Integration: Cells of the Nervous
System, The Central Nervous System, The Peripheral Nervous System, The Sense Organs, and The Endocrine System.

The nervous system. Organizational plan of the nervous system. NeurogliaDevelopment of the myelin sheath.Structure of a typical neuron. The inset is a scanning electron micrograph of a neuron. (Alan Peters.)Myelinated axon.
Axonal transport. Neuronal Membranes : Structural classification of neurons. A, Multipolar neuron: neuron with multiple extensions from the cell body. B, Bipolar neuron: neuron with exactly two extensions from the cell body. C, (Pseudo) unipolar neuron: neuron with only one extension from the cell body. The central process is an axon; the peripheral process is a modified axon with branched dendrites at its extremity. (The red arrows show the direction of impulse travel.)The Reflex ArcExamples of reflex arcs. Axons
Repair of a peripheral nerve fiber.Membrane potential. Role of ion channels.The Sodium-Potassium Pump.Local potentials. Depolarization and repolarization.
The action potential.Refractory period.Conduction of the action potential. Saltatory conduction. Electrical and chemical synapses.Arrangements of synapses.
The chemical synapse.Fate of neurotransmitters.Summary of synaptic transmission.Summation.Direct stimulation of postsynaptic receptor.Second messenger stimulation of postsynaptic receptor.
TransmittersExamples of neuropeptides.Multiple Neurofibromatosis.The Blood-Brain Barrier.Effects of multiple sclerosis (MS).Neural Networks.
The central nervous system.Coverings of the brain.Coverings of the spinal cord.Fluid spaces of the brain.Flow of cerebrospinal fluid.Spinal cord. The inset illustrates a transverse section of the spinal cord shown in the broader view.
Cauda EquinaMajor tracts of the spinal cord.Divisions of the brain.The brainstem and diencephalon. A, Anterior aspect. B, Posterior aspect (shifted slightly to lateral). The CerebellumCoordinating function of the cerebellum.
Diencephalon. Role of pineal gland in timekeeping.Melatonin. Left hemisphere of cerebrum, lateral surface. Note the highlighted lobes of the cerebrum.Cerebral tracts.The Basal Nuclei
Functional areas of the cerebral cortex.Primary somatic sensory (A) and motor (B) areas of the cortex.Reticular activating system (RAS).Structures of the limbic system. Examples of somatic sensory pathways.Examples of somatic motor pathways.
Concept of extrapyramidal motor control. Electroencephalogram (EEG). (Courtesy D.N. Markand.)Diagnostic Study. Location of lumbar puncture. The needle is inserted a few centimeters below the spinal cord.Diagnostic Study. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination. FYI. Human brain specimens. A, Oblique frontal section. B, Horizontal sections (left section is slightly inferior to right section).  FYI. Wrinkles and grooves of the brain. Gray matter on the surface of the cerebrum is folded to form bumps or gyri. The valleys between the bumps are called sulci. Larger sulci are often called fissures.
FYI. Surface area of the cerebellum and cerebrum. The gray matter on the surface of the cerebellum (blue) and the cerebrum (orange) is larger than it first appears because it is highly folded. Health Matters. A, Dopaminergic pathways of the brain. B, Signs of Parkinson disease (PD). The EEGSummary of CNS Structures and Functions Summary of CNS Structures and Functions (cont'd.) Summary of CNS Structures and Functions (cont'd.)
Spinal nerves. Rami of the spinal nervesCervical plexus. Brachial plexus.Lumbosacral plexus.Segmental distribution of spinal nerves.
Dermatome distribution of spinal nerves. Myotomes and body movement. Cranial nerves. Ventral surface of the brain showing attachment of the cranial nerves.Trigeminal nerve (V).Facial nerve (VII). Artist's interpretation of the location of the various branches of the facial nerve.Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX).
Vagus nerve (X).Accessory nerve (XI). Patellar reflex. Neural pathway involved in the patellar (knee jerk) reflex.Common clinical reflex tests.Autonomic conduction paths.Major autonomic pathways.
Locations of neurotransmitters and receptors of the autonomic nervous system.Functions of autonomic neurotransmitters and receptors.Central nervous system hierarchy that regulates autonomic functions.Herpes zoster. Pain zones in trigeminal neuralgia. Signs of damage to the facial nerve (VII).
Nonadrenergic-noncholinergic (NANC) transmission.Structure and Function of the Cranial Nerves Structure and Function of the Cranial Nerves (cont'd.) Structure and Function of the Cranial Nerves (cont'd.) Structure and Function of the Cranial Nerves (cont'd.) Adaptation of sensory receptors.
The importance of cutaneous sensation. Range of temperature receptor sensitivity. (Adapted from Boron W, Boulpaep E: Medical physiology, updated version, ed 1, Philadelphia, 2005, Saunders.)Discriminative touch.Somatic sensory receptors.Olfaction. Relationship of olfactory and gustatory pathways.
The tongue.Taste receptors. Examining the Ear.The ear. External, middle, and inner ear. (Anatomical structures are not drawn to scale.)The inner ear. Effect of sound waves on cochlear structures.
The VestibuleStructure and function of the crista ampullaris. External eye structures.Accessory structures of the eye. Lateral view with eyelids closed.Acute bacterial conjunctivitis.Lacrimal apparatus.
Extrinsic muscles of the right eye. A, Superior view. B, Lateral view.Horizontal section through the eyeball. The eye is viewed from aboveLens, cornea, iris, and ciliary body. Note the suspensory ligaments that attach the lens to the ciliary body.Cell layers of the retina. Examining the eye.Formation of aqueous humor.
AccommodationStrabismus.Rhodopsin cycle.Color Visual fields and neural pathways of the eye.Disorders of the ear.
Correcting refraction disorders.Cataract. Note the prominent cataract of the left eye. (From Swartz MH: Textbook of physical diagnosis, ed 4, Philadelphia, 2002, Saunders.)Retinal pathological conditions.Referred pain. Cochlear implants. Corneal transplants.
Finding your Blind Spot.Testing for near-vision acuity. Color blindness.Classification of Somatic Sensory Receptors Classification of Somatic Sensory Receptors (cont'd.) Mechanisms of endocrine (A) and nervous (B) signals.
Locations of some major endocrine glands.Chemical classification of some major hormones.Steroid hormone structure. Synthesis of steroid hormones.Nonsteroid hormone structure. The target cell concept.
Steroid hormone mechanism. Example of a second messenger mechanism.Calcium-calmodulin as a second messenger.Endocrine feedback loop. Regulation of target cell sensitivity. A, Up-regulation. B, Down-regulation.Formation of prostaglandin and related molecules.
The Hypophysis (Pituitary)Histology of the adenohypophysis.Pituitary hormones.Hypophyseal portal system.Action of hypothalamic hormones. Negative feedback control by the hypothalamus.
Secretion of growth hormone (GH).Relationship of the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis. Thyroid gland. Thyroid gland tissue.Synthesis, storage, and release of thyroid hormone (T3 and T4). Parathyroid gland.
Parathyroid tissue. Calcium regulation.Location of the adrenal gland.Structure of the adrenal gland. Adrenal tissue.Adrenal hormones.
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) for regulating aldosterone secretion. The numbers correspond to the steps outlined in the text.Secretion of cortisol. Combined nervous and endocrine influence on sympathetic effectors. The Pancreas. Cells of the pancreatic islet.Regulation of blood glucose levels.
Local Hormones. Growth hormone abnormalities.Thyroid hormone abnormalities. A, Simple goiter. B, Exophthalmos goiter (anterior view). C, Exophthalmos goiter (lateral view). Cushing syndrome. A, Fatty “moon face” in a boy with Cushing syndrome. B, The face of the same boy 4 months after treatment.


Unit IV. Transportation and defense: Blood, Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System, Physiology of the Cardiovascular System, Lymphatic System, and Immune System.

Composition of whole blood. Approximate values for the components of blood in a normal adult.The formed elements of blood.Hematocrit TubesErythrocytes.Hemoglobin.Formation of blood cells.
Erythropoiesis.Destruction of red blood cells.Neutrophil.Eosinophil.Basophil.Lymphocyte.
Monocyte.Automated microscope systems.Megakaryocyte.ABO blood types. Agglutination. Results of (cross-matching) different combinations (types) of donor and recipient blood.
Erythroblastosis fetalis.Difference between blood plasma and blood serum.Blood-clotting mechanism.The Coagulation CascadeFibrinolysis.Iron deficiency anemia.
Multiple myeloma.Types of leukemia.Infectious mononucleosis. Sickle cell anemia.Classes of Blood CellsAppearance of the heart.
Location of the heart. Location of the heart.The heart and great vessels. A, Anterior view. B, Posterior view.Pericardium.Wall of the heart. Interior of the heart.
Chambers and valves of the heart. Skeleton of the heart.Relation of the heart to the anterior wall of the thorax.Coronary arteries. Coronary veins. Artery and vein. Light micrograph of a cross section of similar-sized artery (left) and vein (right). Notice the thick muscular wall of the artery as compared to the thin-walled vein.
Structure of blood vessels. The tunica externa of the veins are color-coded blue and the arteries red.Microcirculation.Types of capillaries. Circulatory routes. Principal arteries of the body.Divisions and primary branches of the aorta (anterior view).
Major arteries of the head and neck. See Figure 18-20 for arteries at the base of the brain.Arteries at the base of the brain.Major arteries of the upper extremity. Major arteries of the lower extremity.Principal veins of the body.Major veins of the head and neck.
Major veins of the upper extremity. The median cubital (basilic) vein is commonly used for removing blood or giving intravenous infusions (anterior view).Inferior vena cava and its abdominopelvic tributaries. Hepatic portal circulation. Major veins of the lower extremity (anterior view).Placental circulation.Plan of fetal circulation.
Changes in circulation after birth. Stenosed mitral valve.Mitral valve prolapse. CABG: Coronary bypass.Congestive heart failure.Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Partial blockage of an artery in atherosclerosis. Balloon angioplasty.Varicose veins.DVT and PEDiagnostic Study. Cardiac marker studies.  Troponin and Cardiac EnzymesDiagnostic Study. Coronary arteriogram. This angiogram of the coronary arteries shows a narrowing (arrow) of the channel in the anterior ventricular (left anterior descending) artery of the heart.
Fetal alcohol syndrome. Hemodynamics.Conduction system of the heart. Electrocardiogram.The basic theory of electrocardiography.Events represented by the electrocardiogram (ECG).
The U wave.Composite chart of heart function. The cardiac cycle.The primary principle of circulation. Relationship between arterial blood volume and blood pressure. Cardiac output.
Starling's law of the heart.Stroke volume. Cardiac baroreceptors.Aortic and carotid sinus pressoreflexes. Blood viscosity. Vessel diameter.
Vasomotor effects on blood pressure. Relative blood volumes. Changes in local blood flow during exercise.Vasomotor pressoreflexes.Vasomotor chemoreflexes. Influence of gravity on blood distribution in veins.
Venous pumping mechanisms.Venous valves.Starling's law of the capillaries.Three mechanisms that influence total plasma volume.Feedback responses of various arterial pressure mechanisms.Sphygmomanometer.
Factors that influence the flow of blood. Relationship between cross-sectional area and velocity of blood flow.Normal carotid pulse wave.Functional role of the pulse wave.  Pulse points. Each pulse point is named after the artery with which it is associated. (Some arteries in the figure have been enlarged to clarify the location of pulse points.)ECG strip chart recordings.
Defibrillation. Classification of hypertension. This chart is adapted from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program.Sports and Fitness. Regulation of blood flow during exercise. A summary of some important central and local regulatory mechanisms. GI, Gastrointestinal. Diagnostic Study. Turbulent blood flow. A, Laminar blood flow (no turbulence). B, Turbulent blood flow. C, Listening for bruits. Role of the lymphatic system in fluid balance.Principal organs of the lymphatic system.
Lymphatic drainage. Structure of a typical lymphatic capillary. Circulation plan of lymphatic fluid. Lymphangiogram.Lymphatic pump.Lymph flow and interstitial fluid (IF) pressure.
External structure of a lymph node. Internal structure of a lymph node. Lymphatic drainage of the head and neckPalpation of the posterior cervical lymph nodes. MRI of lymph nodes.Role of a lymph node in a skin infection.
Infected lymph node. Lymphatic drainage of the breast. Location of the tonsils. Thymus.T-cell development in the thymus.Location of the spleen.
Structure of the spleen. Lymphedema.Elephantiasis. Lymphangitis.Hodgkin's lymphoma.Innate and adaptive immunity.
Lines of defense.Example of the inflammatory response. Mast cell.Chemotaxis and diapedesis.Inflammation mediators. Phagocytosis of bacteria.
Dendritic cells (DCs).Natural killer (NK) cells. Summary of complement function. Lymphocytes. Development of B cells and T cells. Two strategies of adaptive immunity.
Activation of lymphocytes. B cells in a lymph node. B cell development.Structure of the antibody molecule. Classes of antibodies.Binding of antigen by an antibody.
Actions of antibodies.Membrane attack complex (MAC). Cytolysis of a bacterial cell. Antibody response times.The clonal selection theory.T cell development.
Killing by cytotoxic T cells. Lymphocyte functions. Stages of adaptive immune response.Summary of adaptive immunity. Flowchart summarizing an example of adaptive immune response when exposed to a microbial pathogen.Mechanisms of HIV infection.Clinical progression of HIV/AIDS.
FYI. A, Major histocompatibility complex (MHC). FYI. B, MHC function. Changes in blood antibody titers following primary and secondary (booster) vaccinations. Immunological synapses (IS). FYI. A, Transport of antibodies across the placenta. B, Antibody concentrations before and after birth. FYI. Diagram of the mucosal immune system. Lymphoid tissue associated with mucous membranes is called mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).

Unit V. Respiration, Nutrition, and Excretion. The Respiratory System. Digestive System, Nutrition and Metabolism, the Urnary System and Fluid Balance.

Structural plan of the respiratory system.Nasal septum. Upper respiratory tract.Respiratory mucosa.The paranasal sinuses.Laryngeal cartilages.
Larynx.Vocal folds.Bony structures of the chest.Cross section of the trachea. Transverse section of the trachea.Plastic cast of air spaces of the lungs.
Alveoli.Micrograph of alveoli. Gas exchange structures of the lung.Anterior view of trachea, bronchi, and lungs. Lobes and segments of the lungs.Lungs and pleura (transverse section).
Tonsillitis.Acute bacterial pneumonia.Lobar pneumonia.Health Matters. Keeping the trachea open. Health Matters. Emphysema.Overview of respiratory physiology.
Pressures important in ventilation.Primary principle of ventilation.Balloon model of ventilation. The respiratory cycle.Movement of the rib cage during breathing.Mechanism of inspiration.
Mechanism of expiration.Rhythm of ventilation.Spirometer. Pulmonary ventilation volumes and capacities.Forced expiratory volume (FEV).Flow-volume loops.
Partial pressure of gases in atmospheric air.External-internal barrier.Pulmonary gas exchange. Airflow in airways. Alveolar blood supply.Hemoglobin.
Oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. Carbon dioxide–hemoglobin reaction. Carbon dioxide dissociation curve.Formation of bicarbonate.Carbon dioxide transport in the blood.
Proportions of carbon dioxide transported in the blood.Systemic gas exchange. Oxygen unloading at rest and during exercise.Interaction of PO2 and PCO2 on gas transport by the blood. Regulation of breathing.Negative feedback control of respiration.