COMMON LABORATORY VALUES
- Troponin I : less than 10 µg/L
- Troponin T : 0–0.1 µg/L
Normal troponin levels 12 hours after chest pain has started mean a heart attack is unlikely.
Albumin: 3.2 - 5 g/dl
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), SGPT: <35 IU/L
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), SGOT: < 35 IU/L (20-48)
Alkaline phosphatase: Adults: 25-60: 33 - 131 IU/L; Adults > 61 yo: 51 - 153 IU/L
Ammonia: 20 - 70 mcg/dl
Bilirubin, direct: 0 - 0.3 mg/dl
Bilirubin, total: 0.1 - 1.2 mg/dl
kinase (CK) and isoenzymes
CK-MB (cardiac): 0 - 3.9% (Most doctors use the magic number, 6%)
CK-MM: 96 - 100%
Total CK: 8 - 150 IU/L
Electrolytes and Renal Profile
Calcium: 8.8 - 10.3 mg/dL; Calcium, ionized: 2.24 - 2.46 meq/L
Chloride: 95 - 107 mEq/L
Magnesium: 1.6 - 2.4 mEq/L
Phosphate: 2.5 - 4.5 mg/dL
Potassium: 3.5 - 5.2 mEq/L
Sodium: 135 - 147 mEq/L
Blood Urea Nitrogen: 7 - 20 mg/dl
Creatinine (mg/dl): 0.5 - 1.4
Glucose, fasting (mg/dl): 60 - 110
Glucose, (2 hours postprandial), (mg/dl): Up to 140
Hemoglobin A1c, % (as a screening test)
5.4 = Normal
5.5-6.4 = High risk/pre-diabetic; requires screening by glucose criteria
6.5 = Diabetes, confirmed
by repeating the test on a different day.
In general, therapy should target an A1C level of 6.5% or less for most
Iron (mcg/dl): 65 - 150
Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC): 250 - 420 mcg/dl
Transferrin: > 200 mg/dl
Lactic Acid (meq/L): 0.7 - 2.1
Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH), Total: 56 - 194 IU/L
Osmolality: 289 - 308 mOsm/kg
Uric Acid: (male): 2.0 - 8.0 mg/dl
(female): 2.0 - 7.5 mg/dl
Cholesterol, total: < 200 mg/dL
HDL Cholesterol: 35
mg/dL. Negative risk factor: 60 mg/dL
LDL Cholesterol: 65 - 180 mg/dL
Triglycerides: Normal: < 150 mg/dL
Borderline-high: 150 to 199 mg/dL
High: 200 to 499 mg/dL
Very High: >499 mg/dL
Function Tests(Normal Ranges)
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH): 0.5 - 4.70 µIU/mL
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists guidelines changed the
normal range for TSH to: 0.3 - 3.04 mIU/L.
Thyroid Releasing Factor (TRH): 5 -25 mIu/mL
Total T4 (TT4) bound and free T4: 4.5 -11.5 ug/dL
Free T4(FT4), free T4: 0.8 -2.8 ng/dL
Free T4 Index
(FT4I), estimate of free
T4, FT4I = TT4 x RT3U = 1.0 -4.3 U
Total T3 (TT3), bound and free T3: 75 -200 ng/dL
Resin T3 Uptake
(RT3U), binding capacity
of TBG: 25 -35%
Thyroglobulin: 5-25 ng/mL
Uptake (RAIU) Distribution of
radiolabeled iodine in the thyroid: 5 hr = 5 to 15%; 24 hr = 15 to 35%
Notes regarding thyroid tests:
TSH: best measure to determine thyroid function.
Free T4: much more useful then total T4 (e.g. interested in unbound or
active form). Total T4
not commonly measured. Greatly affected by TBG.
Free T4 index: indirect measure of free T4. Corrects for high/low values
Total T3: not as useful as free T3, however, may be useful in locating
problems with TBG, or if
looking for problems with peripheral conversion of
T4 to T3.
Resin T3 Uptake: if low, then TBG binding capacity is high. Opposite if
T3 uptake is high.
Thyroglobulin: nonspecific test that is elevated when the thyroid gland
is inflamed or
ARTERIAL BLOOD GASES
O: Sat %: 90
blood count (CBC) Adults (Male/Female)
Hemoglobin (g/dl): 13.5 - 16.5/12.0 - 15.0
Hematocrit (%): 41 - 50/36 - 44
RBC's ( x 10/ml): 4.5 - 5.5/4.0 - 4.9
RDW (RBC distribution width): <14.5
MCV: 80 - 100
MCH: 26 - 34
MCHC %: 31 - 37
Platelet Count: 100,000 to 450,000
WBC (cells/ml): 4,500 - 10,000
Segmented neutrophils: 54 - 62%
Band forms: 3 - 5% (above 8% indicates left
Basophils: 0 - 1 (0 - 0.75%)
Eosinophils: 0 - 3 (1 - 3%)
lymphocytes: 24 - 44 (25 - 33%)
Monocytes: 3 - 6 (3 - 7%)
Neutrophils (aka polymorphonuclear cells, PMNs, granulocytes, segmented
neutrophils, or segs) fight against infection and represent a subset of
the white blood count.
The Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC), refers to the total number of neutrophil granulocytes present in the
blood. Neutropenia by definition is an ANC below 1800/mm3
(some sources use a lower value).
Neutropenia: High risk of infection. Remember that a reduced WBC
is known as leukopenia.
Normal value: >1800 cells/mm3.
Mild neutropenia: 1000 - <1800/mm3.
Moderate neutropenia: 500 - <1000/mm3.
Severe neutropenia: < 500/mm3.
Appearance: straw or yellow
colored / clear
Specific gravity: infant: 1.002 -
1.006, child and adult: 1.001 - 1.035
pH: Child and adult:
4.6 - 8
substances should be negative: acetone,
bilirubin, blood, glucose, nitrite, protein, leukocyte esterase.
WBC: 0 - 4/HPF
RBC: Male: 0 -
3/HPF female: 0 - 5/HPF
Epithelial cells: Occasional
Hyaline casts: Occasional
Bilirubin Positive: hepatitis,
Blood Positive: tumors,
infection, trauma, hemolytic anemia, coagulopathy, interstitial nephritis,
polycystic kidneys, kidney stones, burns, cystitis, prostatitis,
Epithelial cells Positive: acute tubular
necrosis, necrotizing papillitis
Glucose Positive: diabetes,
cushing's disease, burns, steroids, hyperthyroidism, pancreatitis,
pancreatic carcinoma, shock
Ketones Positive: diarrhea,
vomiting, DKA, starvation, high fat diet, hyperthyroidism, pregnancy,
Leukocyte Esterase (detects 5 or > WBC). Used along with test for nitrites to detect UTI (predictive capacity:
approximately 74 %). If both nitrites and leukocyte esterase are
negative, there is a 97% chance that a UTI is not present.
present. Nitrates are converted to nitrites by many strains of bacteria.
Protein Positive: glomerulonephritis,
pyelonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, pre-eclampsia, malignancies, heavy
exercise, stress, CHF, malignant hypertension
Normal urine output: (minimum): 0.5 to 1 ml/kg/hr daily
Oliguria: < 500 ml urine/ 24 hours
Anuria: < 100 ml urine/ 24 hours.
Low urine output potential causes:
Prerenal: heart failure,
shock, volume depletion, third spacing fluids, renal artery compromise
Renal: acute tubular
necrosis, end-stage renal disease, interstitial disease, glomerular
drug induced (Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, cisplatin,
colistin, cyclosporin, dextran, gallium, hydroxyurea, lithium, methicillin,
methotrexate, methoxyflurane, nitrofurantoin, pentamidime, plicamycin,
streptozocin, and vancomycin.), bilateral cortical necrosis
bladder, obstruction of ureter, bladder neck, or urethra.
diagnosis Lab findings regarding low output:
creatinine >40 /<20
excreted sodium: [UNa/serum Na] / [Ucr/ serum creatinine] x 100 <1/>1
Urine osmolality: >500/<350
Urinary sodium <20/>40